Get To Know What Is In Semen

Semen is a complex substance that gets released by the male reproduction organ. It is a combination of fluids that are secreted by the several glands of the male reproduction system.

The semen is composed of various essential nutrients and also contains sperm cells. It is made of mostly water, plasma, and mucus, a lubricating substance.  

What is in semen: Composition

Semen is typically composed of the following substances:

Seminal fluid

The seminal fluid is formed from the fluids secreted by various organs of the male reproductive system. The glandular fluids that contribute to the formation of seminal fluids include seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands).

The fluid thus formed by mixing-up of various fluids provides nourishment and support for sperm cells. It also eases their movement through the female reproductive tract.  

Besides, the fluid after entering the vagina neutralizes the acidic environment inside, creating a more favorable environment for the sperm cells to survive.  


Spermatozoa, or sperms are the male reproductive cells produced in the testicles. These are the primary components of semen responsible for fertilizing the female ovum (female reproductive cell) during sexual reproduction.

Sperm count is the number of sperm cells present in the ejaculated semen, which can vary widely among individuals. The physiology, structure, and motility of sperm play a big part in fertility.    


Semen has various proteins, including enzymes, cytokines, and several other compounds that support sperm function, and processes like immune modulation, and maintain reproductive physiology.  


Fructose in semen is secreted by the seminal vesicles. It has an essential role in providing energy for sperm motility. It helps the spermatozoa to move forward and swim to the egg (ovum).

Fructose is a type of sugar that provides energy to sperm cells and manages their metabolism along with male fertility.    



Semen plasma consists of various electrolytes such as calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. All these minerals help maintain osmotic balance and support cellular function.

Apart from this, these electrolytes support metabolic processes like spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and sperm motility.   

Alkaline substances

Seminal fluid lies in the range of alkaline on the pH scale. This helps neutralize the acidic environment of the male and female urethra and female reproductive tract.

The alkaline nature of semen protects sperm cells from damage. It creates a favorable environment for the sperm cells and promotes their survival.   

Trace elements  

Along with several major components, semen also contains some trace elements including selenium, zinc, and vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin E, etc.

All these substances are essential for promoting sperm health and overall reproductive function. The concentration of these elements may vary from individual to individual.  

Additionally, the fluids generated by seminal vesicles form approximately 70% of the semen. While the prostate gland contributes to around 20% of fluids present in the semen. The percentage of the bulbourethral gland makes up to 5%.  

Formation of semen

The process of semen production begins with the production of sperm cells in the testicles. When the sperms are produced, they get stored in the epididymis, which are the ducts where the sperms become matured.  

After maturing, the sperm cells then move from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles, the prostate, and the bulbourethral glands, mixing up the different fluids that become semen.   

The reason why semen has nutrients  

Along with various other elements, semen also contains sperm cells. The semen plasma provides nourishment to the sperm cells and makes their survival easy.

Once the semen is released into the vagina, the sperm cells swim to the egg or ovum, which is the female reproductive cell. It fertilizes the egg to create offspring.

Sperm cells require the utmost nourishment to stay healthy and move swiftly to the egg by withstanding the harsh environment of the vagina.

The nutrient content of the semen supports the survival of the sperm cells and provides them with adequate energy for quick movements. Fructose present in the semen serves as a primary energy source for sperm.

The lowdown

The composition and makeup of semen can vary among individuals. It can be influenced by several factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, and overall health.

To know the contents of semen, a test known as semen analysis, also known as sperm analysis, can be done. The test will obtain information about the volume, quality, and characteristics of semen.

Semen analysis can be essential for the assessment of male fertility and reproductive health. This test is suggested for males facing difficulties in getting their partner pregnant.

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